Investigation of Millimeter Wave’s Cross Polarization Discrimination in Sand and Dust Storms


  • Abdulwaheed Kwara State University, Malete



cross-polarization discrimination, millimeter wave, sand and dust storms, signal propagation, differential attenuation, differential phase rotation, complex scattering


The performance of electromagnetic wave links in sand and dust storms has received considerable interest of researchers in recent time, especially with emphasis on the signal attenuation. However, phase rotation and cross-polarization have not been sufficiently treated. This work investigates the cross-polarization discrimination as a result of sand and dust storms at high frequency such as the millimeter wave band. The paper introduces simple mathematical models of wave propagation in sand and dust storms, and developed based on the forward scattering amplitude of sand and dust particles using the Rayleigh technique. The suitability of the Rayleigh approximation for the models are validated by setting three different conditions. The results show that that the technique is valid for determining the scattering of ellipsoidal sand and dust particles for the sizes considered and frequency range. The scattering coefficients are thus derived and models for attenuation and phase rotation are proposed in terms of visibility. The results obtained from the proposed models show close agreement with some earlier published results when compared. Differential attenuation and differential phase rotation are computed and the cross-polarization discriminations are then predicted using the parameters from the models as inputs. The attenuation during dry sand and dust storms becomes significant only when the visibility is low and severe. At such visibility, the cross-polarization discriminations also become low (i.e. significant) and the same trend and pattern is found as the frequency is increased.


Ahmed, A. S. (1987). Role of particle-size distributions on millimeter-wave propagation in sand/dust storms. Inst. Electr. Eng. Proceedings. 134: 55-59.

Alhaider, M. A. (1986). Radio wave propagation into sandstorms system design based on ten-year visibility data in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Int. J. Inf. Millim. Waves. 7: 1339-1359.

Elsheikh, E. A. A., Islam, M. R., Alam, A. Z., Ismail, A. F., Al-Khateeb, K. and Elabdin, Z. (2010). The effect of particle size distributions on dust storm attenuation prediction for microwave propagation. In: Proc. Int. Conf. Computer and Communication Engineering. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. pp. 11561161.

Bashir, S. O. (2008). Electromagnetic scattering computation methods for very small particles: Part II. Intern. Conf. on modelling and simulation, Published in MS Journal. 9(1-2-3).

Bashir, S. O. (2019). Statistical Modelling of Propagation Parameters through Sand/Dust Storms at Microwave Frequencies. IEEE Intern Conf in Antennas, Propagation and Systems. Johor Bahru, Malaysia.

Bashir, S. O., Musa, A., Ahmed, A. H. and Khalifa, O. O. (2012). Electromagnetic Scattering Computation Methods for very Small Spheroidal Dust Particles: Theory and Applications. Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Mathematical Applications in Eng. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, July 3-5, No. 2008.

Chiou, M. and Kiang, J. (2018). PWE-Based radar equation to predict backscattering of millimeter-wave in a sand and dust storm. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 785-793.

Chiou, M. and Kiang, J. (2018). Attenuation of millimeter-wave in a sand and dust storm. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1094-1098, 2018.

Goldhirsh, J. (2001). Attenuation and backscatter from a derived two-dimensional dust storm model. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 49(12): 1703-1711.

Dong, X. Y. and Chen, H. Y. (2011). Microwave and Millimeter wave attenuation in sand and dust storms. IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett. 10: 469-471.

McEwan, N. J. & Bashir, S. O. (1983). Microwave propagation in sand and dust storms: The theoretical basis for particle alignment. International Conference on Antennas and Propagation, ICAP 82. IEE Conference Publication No. 219. pp. 227-231.

Musa, A., Camara, M. F. and Bashir, S. O. (2018). Modeling of dust particles canting as input to microwave cross polarization, in Proc. IEEE International Conf on Computing, Control, Networking, Electronics and Embedded Systems Engineering, Khartoum, Sudan, 2018, pp. 87-90.

Musa, A. and Paul, B. S. (2021). Dust Particle’s Permittivity in Microwave Signal Propagation. Journal of Communications, vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 38-44. Doi: 10.12720/jcm.15.1.38-44.

Rasheed, D. A. (2016). Depolarization effects of microwave signals due to dust storms particles,” International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 1-9.

Ruike, Y., Zhensen, W., and Jinguang, Y. (2013). The study of millimeter wave and MW attenuation considering multiple scattering effects in sand and dust storms at slant paths. Int. J. Inf. Millim. Waves. 24: 1383-1392.

Srivastava, S. K. & Vishwakarma, B. R. (2013). Cross polarization and attenuation of microwave/millimeter wave propagation in storm layer containing sand, silt and clay as dust constituents. IE (I) J.-ET. 84: 30-38.

Vishvakarma, B. R. and C. S. Rai. (2013). Limitations of Rayleigh scattering in the prediction of millimeter wave attenuation in sand and dust storms. In: Proc. IEEE Int. Geosciences and Remote Sensing Symp. (IGARSS). pp. 267-269.

YingXia, X. & JiYing, H. (2013). Effect of sand and dust storms on Ka-band electromagnetic wave propagation along earth-space paths. Chinese J. Radio Sci. 18: 328-331.

Yi, Y. (2014). Microwave propagation in saline dust storms. Int. J. Inf. Millim. Waves. 25: 1237-1243.