Hybridization of OFDM and Physical Layer Techniques for Information Security in Wireless System


  • Olawoyin L. A. Department of Telecommunication Science, University of Ilorin.
  • Musrafah Abdul-Rahman Department of Telecommunication Science, University of Ilorin
  • Nasir Faruk Department of Information Technology, Sule Lamido University, Kafin Hausa. Jigawa. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4433-8348
  • Abdulkarim Oloyede Department of Telecommunication Science, University of Ilorin
  • Caroline Adeniran Department of Telecommunication Science, University of Ilorin
  • Oyebamiji Lasisi Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering, Osun State University, Osogbo
  • Ismaeel Sikiru Department of Information Technology, University of Ilorin.
  • Bashir Abdullahi Baba Department of Cyber Security, Sule Lamido University, Kafin Hausa


Cryptography, dummy data, optimization, physical layer encryption, Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing


Due to quest for high data rate, reliable and secure communication, this has motivated both wired and wireless network access service providers to deploy a next-generation network with ability to meet the required need. The use orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) enables reliable transmission of various data traffic by optimizing subcarrier, power, and allocation of bits among different users. Traditionally, securing data in wireless system is always at the upper layer of open system interconnection (OSI) Model by using data encryption techniques. However, such techniques may not be acceptable for future decentralized networks due to their high complexity in implementation and computation. In this work, an OFDM IEEE 802.11a wireless system is used and physical layer encryption (PLE) schemes are implemented in securing the information transfer between two legitimate parties. In the simulation, the source data are encrypted by obfuscation with dummy data in between the encrypted data of which 52 subcarriers were considered of which 25 subcarriers are reserved for dummy data and 27 were for data. The simulation was conducted for four different modulation techniques i.e., BPSK, QPSK, 16 QAM, and 64 QAM. The result obtained shown that for all the modulation schemes, the key rate increases with an increase in the reserved subcarrier bits. Also, the security level increased when substantial percentages of the subcarriers are reserved for dummy data.


Aniruddha Singh, A. V. P., Kumar Keserwani (2014 ). "Research Issues and Challenges of Wireless Networks." International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering Volume 4(Issue 2): pp. 572-575.

Banawan, K., & Ulukus, S. (2020). Private information retrieval through wiretap channel II: Privacy meets security. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 66(7), 4129-4149.

Franičević, I. (2017). Simulacija LTE mreže na području Borongaja (Doctoral dissertation, University of Zagreb. Faculty of Transport and Traffic Sciences. Division of Transport. Department of Information and Communications Traffic).

Haji M. Furqan, J. M. H., Huseyin Arslan (2018). "Adaptive OFDM-IM for Enhancing Physical Layer Security and Spectral Efficiency of Future Wireless Networks." Research Article 2018: pp 1-16.

Hamouid, K., & Adi, K. (2020). Privacy-aware authentication scheme for electric vehicle in-motion wireless charging. In 2020 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC) (pp. 1-6).

Irving, P. A. O. a. P. (2016). "Performance Analysis of Wireless Network Throughput and Security Protocol Integration." International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking Vol. 9(No. 1): pp. 71-78.

Jameel, Furqan, Haider, M Asif Ali Butt, and Amir Aziz (2017). A technical review of simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT). 2017 International Symposium on Recent Advances in Electrical Engineering (RAEE),

Junqing Zhang, A. M., Roger Woods and Trung Q. Duong. (2016). "Design of an OFDM Physical Layer Encryption Scheme." IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology: pp 1-14.

Khan, M. A., Asim, M., Jeoti, V., and Manzoor, R. S. (2007). On secure OFDM system: Chaos based constellation scrambling. 2007 International Conference on Intelligent and Advanced Systems.

Mazurczyk, K. S. a. W. (2011). "Steganography in IEEE 802.11 OFDM symbols." Research Article 9(2): pp 118–129.

Pamarthi, S. and R. Narmadha (2022). "Literature review on network security in Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc Network for IoT applications: Network attacks and detection mechanisms." International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems 10(4): 482-506.

Razaque, A., Jararweh, Y., Alotaibi, B., Alotaibi, M., & Almiani, M. (2022). Hybrid energy-efficient algorithm for efficient internet of things deployment. Sustainable Computing: Informatics and Systems, 35, 100715.

Qu, Z., Zhao, S., Xu, J., Lu, Z., & Liu, Y. (2021). How to Test the Randomness From the Wireless Channel for Security?. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 16, 3753-3766.

Ruifeng Ma, L. D., Zhaocheng Wang and Jun Wang (2010). "Secure Communication in TDS-OFDM System Using Constellation Rotation and Noise Insertion." IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics Vol. 56(No. 3): pp1328-1332.

Sharma, Sukhwinder, Bansal, Rakesh Kumar and Bansal, Savina (2013). Issues and challenges in wireless sensor networks. 2013 International Conference on Machine Intelligence and Research Advancement, IEEE.

Singh, A., et al. (2014). "Research issues and challenges of wireless networks." International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering 4(2): 572-575.

Tao, J., Li, S., Zhang, X., & Wang, Z. (2018). Towards robust image steganography. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, 29(2), 594-600.

Van Linh, D. and V. Van Yem (2023). "Key Generation Technique Based on Channel Characteristics for MIMO-OFDM Wireless Communication Systems.

Liu, Jiangchuan, Wang, Feng, Ma, Xiaoqiang and Yang, Zhe (2017) . "Integration of networking, caching, and computing in wireless systems: A survey, some research issues, and challenges." IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials 20(1): 7-38.

Wyner, A. D. (1975). "Wire-tap channel." The Bell System Technical Journal 54(8): PP 1355–1387.

Zhang, J., et al. (2016). "Design of an OFDM physical layer encryption scheme." IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 66(3): 2114-2127.