Robust Watermarking Techniques for the Authentication and Copyright Protection of Digital Images: A Survey


  • Godwin Ugwu Onoja Department of Computer Science, Joseph Sawuan Tarka University, Makurdi, Nigeria
  • Mustapha Aminu Bagiwa Department of Computer Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
  • Aliyu Mohammad Kufena Department of Computer Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria


Image Watermarking, Robustness, Image Authentication, Copyright Protection, Hybrid Domain, Geometric Attacks


Digital image authentication and security are crucial concerns for the digital revolution since any image may be readily tampered with. Digital watermarking schemes were since been utilized to tackle a range of problems over time and involving the verification of digital images and copyright protection. In a real-world setting, watermarked contents are frequently subject to a succession of assaults which makes it necessary to strike a balance between resilience and imperceptibility in the face of attacks. There are numerous hazards to this, and numerous watermarking techniques have been created to counter them. Data with less perceptual distortion should be able to be included in a real watermarking technique in addition to restoring the original cover content. As a result, robustness, imperceptibility, and security are three crucial criteria for digital content's authentication and copyright preservation. This study therefore presents a careful review of some cutting-edge watermarking technologies used for copyright protection and authentication so as to identify their strengths and limitations. For clarity, this study shall explain some basic concepts of digital watermarking as well as the various forms of attacks on watermarks. The contributions from this work will be useful to researchers aim at developing efficient watermarking techniques.


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