Robust Watermarking Techniques for the Authentication and Copyright Protection of Digital Images: A Survey
Keywords:Image Watermarking, Robustness, Image Authentication, Copyright Protection, Hybrid Domain, Geometric Attacks
Digital image authentication and security are crucial concerns for the digital revolution since any image may be readily tampered with. Digital watermarking schemes were since been utilized to tackle a range of problems over time and involving the verification of digital images and copyright protection. In a real-world setting, watermarked contents are frequently subject to a succession of assaults which makes it necessary to strike a balance between resilience and imperceptibility in the face of attacks. There are numerous hazards to this, and numerous watermarking techniques have been created to counter them. Data with less perceptual distortion should be able to be included in a real watermarking technique in addition to restoring the original cover content. As a result, robustness, imperceptibility, and security are three crucial criteria for digital content's authentication and copyright preservation. This study therefore presents a careful review of some cutting-edge watermarking technologies used for copyright protection and authentication so as to identify their strengths and limitations. For clarity, this study shall explain some basic concepts of digital watermarking as well as the various forms of attacks on watermarks. The contributions from this work will be useful to researchers aim at developing efficient watermarking techniques.
Singh, P. and Chadha, R.S. (2013). A survey of digital watermarking techniques, applications and attacks. Int. J. Eng. Innov. Technol. 2:165–175.
Aaqib, R. (2016). Digital watermarking applications and techniques: A brief review. International Journal of Computer Applications Technology and Research, 5(3): 147-150
Abdulrahman, A. K. and Ozturk, S. (2019). A novel hybrid DCT and DWT based robust watermarking algorithm for color images. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 78:17027–17049.
Abraham, J. and Paul, V. (2019). An imperceptible spatial domain color image watermarking scheme. Journal of King Saud University, 31:125–133.
Alzahrani A. (2022). Enhanced invisibility and robustness of digital image watermarking based on DWT-SVD. Applied Bionics and Biomechanics, 2022: 1-13 doi.org/10.1155/2022/5271600
Ambadekar, S.P., Jain, J. and Khanapuri, J. (2018). Digital image watermarking through encryption and dwt for copyright protection. Journal of Recent Trends in Signal and Image Processing, 727:187–195.
Assini, I., Badri, A. Badri, A., Safi, K., Sahel, A. and Baghdad, A. (2018). A robust hybrid watermarking technique for securing medical image. International Journal of Intelligent Engineering and Systems, 11(3):169–176.
Barni, M. and Bartolini, F. (2004). Watermarking systems engineering: Enabling digital assets security and other application. New York: CRC Press. 500p.
Chen, B. and Wornell, G. W. (2001). Quantization index modulation: A class of provably good methods for digital watermarking and information embedding. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, 47(4):1423-1443
Chen, Z., Chen, Y., Hu, W. and Qian, D. (2015). Wavelet domain digital watermarking algorithm based on threshold classification. International Conference on Swarm Intelligence, 9142:129–136.
Cox, I. J. and Miller, M. L. (2002). The first 50 years of electronic watermarking. EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing, (2): 126 - 132
Cox, J, Miller, M. L. and Bloom, J.A. (2002). Digital watermarking and fundamentals. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.
Desai, H. V. (2012). Steganography, cryptography, watermarking: A comparative study. Journal of Global Research in Computer Science,3(12):33-35
Discrete Wavelet Transform. Available online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discrete_wavelet_transform (accessed on 23 October 2019).
Gaata, M.T. (2016). An efficient image watermarking approach based on fouriertransform. International Journal of Computer Application. 136: 8–11.
Hajjaji, M.A., Mtibaa, A. and Bourennane, E. (2011). A watermarking of medical image: Method based "LSB”. Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences, 2(12):714-721.
Hamidi, M., Haziti, M. E., Cherifi, H. and Hassouni, M. E. (2018). Hybrid blind robust image watermarking technique based on DFT-DCT and Arnold transform. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 77(20):27181–27214.
Jain, P. and Ghanekar, U. (2018). Robust watermarking technique for textured images. in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Smart Computing and Communications (ICSCC), pp. 179–186, Kurukshetra, India.
Jane, O. and Elbasi, E. (2014). A new approach in non-blind watermarking method based on DWT and SVD via LU decomposition. Turk. J. Electr. Eng. Comput. Sci. 22:1354–1366.
Kaur, E.J.; Kaur, E.K. (2012). Digital watermark: A study. Int. J. Adv. Res. Comput. Sci. Softw. Eng. 2:159–163
Kumar, A. (2019). A Review on implementation of digital image watermarking using LSB and DWT. Inf. Commun. Technol. Sustain. Dev. 933:595–602.
Lin, C., Wu, M., Bloom, J.A., Cox, I.J., Miller, M.L. and Lui, Y.M. (2001). Rotation, scale, and translation resilient watermarking for images. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10:767–782.
Liu, X.L., Lin, C.C., & Yuan, S.M. (2018). Blind dual watermarking for color images’ authentication and copyright protection. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, 28(5), 1047–1055. doi:10.1109/tcsvt.2016.2633878
Mahbuba and Mohammad (2020). Digital image watermarking techniques: A review. information, 11(110):1-42
Mohammed, G.N., Yasin, A. and Zeki, A.M. (2014). Robust image watermarking based on dual intermediate significant bit (DISB). In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on CSIT, Amman, Jordan, pp. 19–22
Muyco, S.D and Hernandez, A.A. (2019). Least significant bit hash algorithm for digital image watermarking authentication. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Computing and Artificial Intelligence, Bali, Indonesia, pp.150–154.
Najafi, E. A. (2017). Robust Embedding and Blind Extraction of Image Watermarking Based on Discrete Wavelet Transform. J. Math. Sci. 1:307–318.
Obimbo, C. and Salami, B. (2012). Using Digital Watermarking for Copyright Protection, Watermarking – in Gupta, M.D.(Ed.), InTech, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/watermarking-volume-2/using-digital-watermarking-for-copyright-protection. 2:137-158.
Pal, K, Ghosh, G. and Bhattacharya, M. (2012). A comparative study between LSB and modified bit replacement (MBR) watermarking technique in spatial domain for biomedical image security. International Journal of Computer Applications and Technology, 1(1):30-39.
Piva, A., Barni, M. Bartolini, F. and Cappellini, V. (1997). DCT-based watermark recovering without resorting to the uncorrupted original image, Proceedings of International Conference on Image Processing, vol.1 pp. 520-523.
Pun, C.M. (2009). High capacity and robust digital image watermarking. In Proceedings of the 5th International Joint Conference on INC, IMS and IDC, Seoul, South Korea 25–27. pp. 1457–1461.
Ramana, P.R., Munaga, V.N., Prasad, K, and Sreenivasa, R (2009). Robust Digital Watermarking of Color Images under Noise attacks. International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering, 1(1):334-338.
Rathor, B. and Saharan, R. (2017). Steganography using bit plane embedding and cryptography. In Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Smart System, Innovations and Computing, Jaipur, India, Vol. 79, pp. 319–330.
Savakar, D. G. and Ghuli, A. (2019). Robust invisible digital image watermarking using hybrid scheme. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 44(4):3995–4008.
Shih, F.Y. and Wu, S.Y. (2003). Combinational image watermarking in the spatial and frequency domains. J. Pattern Recognit. Soc. 36:969–975.
Sridhar, P. A. (2018). Robust digital image watermarking in hybrid frequency domain. Int. J. Eng. Technol. 7:243–248.
Takore, T. T. Kumar, P. R. and Devi G L. (2018). A new robust and imperceptible image watermarking scheme based on hybrid transform and PSO. International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications, 10(11):50–63.
Tao, H., Chongmin, L., Zain, J.M. and Abdalla, A.N. (2014). Robust image watermarking theories and techniques: A review. J. Appl. Res. Technol. 12:122–138.
Tirkel, A.Z., Rankin, G.A., Van Schyndel, R.M., Ho, W.J., Mee, N.R.A., Osborne, C.F. (1993). Electronic Water Mark. DICTA 93, Macquarie University, pp. 666–673.
UKEssays. (November 2018). The History of The Digital Watermarking Techniques. Retrieved from https://www.ukessays.com/essays/information-technology/the-history-of-the-digital-watermarking-techniques-information-technology-essay.php?vref=1
Usman, I. (2010). Digital Watermarking Using Machine Learning Approaches. A dissertation submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Computer and Information Sciences to The Department of Computer and Information Sciences, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Vaishnavia, D. and Subashini, T.S. (2014). Robust and invisible image watermarking in RGB color space using SVD. In Proceedings of the Communication Technologies, Kochi India, pp. 1770–1777.
WOO, C. (2007). Digital image watermarking methods for copyright protection and authentication. A Thesis submitted in accordance with the regulations for Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Information Security Institute Faculty of Information Technology Queensland University of Technology, 197p
Wu, X., Hu, J., Gu, Z. and Huang, J. A. (2020). Secure Semi-fragile Watermarking for Image Authentication Based on Integer Wavelet Transform with Parameters. Available online: https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.5555/1082290.1082302 (accessed on 8 February 2022).
Yeo, In and Kim, H.J. (2003). Generalized patchwork algorithm for image watermarking. Multimedia Systems, 9:261– 265.
Zeki, A., Abubakar, A. and Chiroma, H. (2020). An intermediate significant bit (ISB) watermarking technique using neural networks. Available online: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40064-016-2371-6#citeas (accessed on 16 February 2022).
Zhang, Y., Li, Y. and Sun, Y. (2019). Digital watermarking based on Joint DWT–DCT and OMP reconstruction. Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing, 38:5135-5148