Schemes for Extending the Network Lifetime of Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

Shamsuddeen Abdullahi Mikail, Aliyu Danjuma Usman, Abdoulie Momodou Sunkary Tekanyi, Kabir Ahmad Abu-bilal, Aminu Abba Muhammad, Isyaku Yau, Muazu Jibrin Musa

Keywords:Wireless charger, mobile charging, rechargeable sensor nodes, distributed algorithms, clustering, wireless
energy transfer, data gathering


Most Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (WRSN) allow simultaneous energy replenishment with data gathering.
These schemes suffer from high energy consumption of mobile chargers and could require new sensor design for their
integration. Thus, we propose Distributed Energy Replenishment and Data Gathering (DERDG) to reduce the energy
consumption of the chargers and Spatio-Temporal Non-Concurrent Data gathering and Energy replenishment (STNCDR) that are easily be integratable on the sensor nodes. In these schemes, sensor nodes are divided into clusters
and requests from energy-hungry nodes are arranged based on their temporal properties in DERDG, but using their
spatial and temporal properties in ST-NCDR. In ST-NCDR scheme, two mobile chargers replenish the energy of energyhungry nodes when they are not performing sensing and transmission of data, but irrespective of their operational states
in DERDG scheme. Simulation results indicate the superiority of the schemes over state-of-the-art schemes in terms of
energy consumption of mobile chargers and average residual energy of the nodes. Both DERDG and ST-NCDR reduced
the energy consumption of the chargers, without reduction in the network lifetime, by an average of 29.45% and 73.70%,
respectively, when compared to the work of Han et al. (2018), and by 71.40% and 93.80% in comparison to the work
of Mikail et al. (2020). DERDG reduces data delivery delay by 95.50% in comparison to the work of Han et. al, (2018).
The findings imply that ST-NCDR can be easily integrated into sensor nodes and yields a reduction in the energy of
mobiles chargers use in charging the sensor nodes that translate to lower cost of network operation, in addition to
improving the residual energy of nodes in WRSN. This part should state the context of the research being reported.
Aim: the objective of the research should be clearly stated here Method: the research approach used in the study,
justifying its suitability for the study should be stated here. Results: the findings and their implication(s) should be
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