An Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Tudun Fulani, Niger State, Nigeria
Muhammad Taoheed Bisiriyu, Mustapha Adekomi Ganiyu, Lawal Idris Audu3 , AbdulHakam Safiu Abdullahi and Iyanda Murtala Animashaun
Keywords: Groundwater, well, borehole, physicochemical parameter, heavy metals
Background: groundwater is the main source of drinking water in Tudun Fulani community in Bosso, Niger State, Nigeria. Objective: this study was conducted to assess the physicochemical and heavy metal characteristics of groundwater used for drinking and other domestic purposes in the area with a view to determining its suitability for these purposes. Method: twelve water samples comprising of seven hand-dug wells and five boreholes were collected from different locations in the area. Physicochemical parameters (pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), total solids (TS), alkalinity, total hardness, chloride) and heavy metals (lead, manganese, copper and iron) contents were determined using standard methods. Results: the results showed that the pH, electrical conductivity, TDS, TSS, TS turbidity, alkalinity, total hardness and chloride ranged between 5.72 – 7.32, 252.5 – 1098 μS/cm, 58 – 11.35 mg/L, 0.001 – 0.108 mg/L, 1.05 – 7.33 NTU, 10.60 – 104.20 mg/L, 26.6 – 170.2 mg/L, and 28.17 – 86.9 mg/L, respectively. The heavy metal analysis revealed lead, manganese copper, and iron to range between 0.001-0.009 mg/L, 0.01-0.28 mg/L, 0.010 – 0.050 mg/L and 0.100 – 0.430 mg/L, while manganese and lead not detected in one and six of the samples, respectively. Conclusion: the values of the parameters analyzed in this study were below and within the permissible limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO) for most of the water samples investigated; hence the groundwater is suitable for drinking and for other life supporting activities. However, only four samples (W1,W5 W6, and W7) were within the range of 100 – 300 mg/L set by WHO for total hardness. In addition, the pH values of water samples W4, W5, B4, and B5 were below the recommended standard, while the electrical conductivity of W5, turbidity of W3, W5 and iron contents of W2 and W7 were above the maximum limit set by WHO. Therefore, it is recommended that indiscriminate discharge of wastes be checked in locations of W2 and W7 as high iron content in drinking water poses serious health risks to the consumers.