Genotypic and Phenotypic Correlation between Fruit Yield and Its Components in Tomato under Different Nitrogen Supply
Shamsu Ado Zakari, Abdu Ahmad Manga, Amira Musa Saad, Ahmad Sani Yakasai, Sani Umar Haruna Abba Yusuf Ibrahim
Keywords: Correlation matrix; Icrixina; Kano; Nitrogen; Roma VF; Rainy Season; Tomato
Tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L.) (Karst) is one of the most commonly grown vegetables in Nigeria, where changes in climatic conditions, such as high temperature, rainfall and inappropriate Nitrogen (N) application do not allow realization of its potential yield. During the rainy season fruit set is very poor and little is known of specific optimum N fertilizer requirement. Understanding a single or combinations of yield components of top-quality tomato genotypes and specific N fertilizer requirement under hot rainy conditions is of significant important. To accomplish that experiment was conducted at Bayero University, Kano Research Farm and National Horticultural Research Institute, Bagauda sub-station Kano. Treatments consisted of three tomato varieties; Icrixina, Roma VF and UC82B and four levels of N fertilizer; 0, 50, 100, and 150 kg ha−1 . The treatments were laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications and factorially combined. Simple correlation analysis was done to assess the type of relationship among the genotypic vs phenotypic variables and fruit yield, regression analysis was carried out to determine the optimum level of N in the two locations. Result shows highly significant and positive correlation between fruit yield plant-1 with aborted flowers, blossom end rot, cracked fruit, fruit per cluster, fruit per plant and fruit width in both locations. Days to 50% flowering and fruit length recorded most significant negative correlation indices with total yield plant-1 and fruit yield per hectare. Differentially, aborted flowers shows positive correlation with blossom end rot in BUK but negatively correlated in Bagauda. The regression analysis carried out shows linear response at BUK and quadratic at Bagauda. Fruit yield increased in linear response to N rates application at Bagauda but seized reaches at 150 kg N ha-1 at BUK. In conclusion, the present study revealed that early flowering and fruitfulness were the most crucial yield components for rainy-season tomatoes and N fertilizer level of 150kgN ha-1 can be suggested for the optimum tomato production during the rainy season in the study area.