Evaluation of Levels of Heavy Metals (Pb, Cd, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) and Anions (NO3 -, PO4 c3-) in Surface and Ground Water Sample collected from Kafin Hausa

Yusuf S

Keywords: Heavy-Metals, Surface Water, Ground Water, Gambawa. 


The poor sanitary and sewage disposal system in Kafin Hausa has made it a matter of necessity to evaluate the level of contamination of the various sources of water in the town. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of heavy metals and anions in surface and ground water collected from sixteen (16) sites in Gambawa, Tamburawa and a River in Kafin Hausa. Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer was used to determine the levels of the heavy metals whereas the levels of nitrate (NO3 – ) and phosphate (PO4 3- ) were analysed using spectrophotometric methods. Copper (II) sulphate was used as a catalyst. The samples were analysed for their levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), nitrate (NO3 – ) and phosphate (PO4 3- ). The following ranges were obtained for Pb (0.017 to 0.0095 mg/L), Cd (0 to 0.0055 mg/L), Fe (0.029 to 0.051 mg/L), Mn (0.032 to 0.092 mg/L), Zn (0.016 to 0.032 mg/L), Cu (0.016 to 0.032 mg/L), NO3 – (0.7003 to 0.771 mg/L), PO4 3- (0.596 to 1.26 mg/L). The results obtained showed that the concentrations of all the heavy metals were within the recommended standard limit set by WHO. Cadmium showed strong positive correlations with Pb, Cu and Fe at a significance level of 0.01 (2-tailed) while Positive correlations were also recorded for Cu with Fe at a significance level of 0.01 (2-tailed). The possible sources of these heavy metals displaying positive correlations were considered to be similar. The mean concentrations recorded for nitrate in all the samples were below the maximum permissible limit set by WHO. However, the levels PO4 3- were above the maximum permissible limit. However, phosphorus is needed for bumper agricultural harvest; it has been implicated for eutrophication.